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|What is Truth?||
A Free Online Booklet
Illustrated by Peter Dunstan, copyright © Peter Dunstan 1977
including References and source notes.
"What is truth?
said jesting Pilate
and would not stay
for an answer."
(Pilate did not run away, although Bacon would have. See very important Reference)
What is truth and what is falsehood we must merely apprehend, for both seem incapable of analysis." (Bertrand Russell)
"Perhaps no one has been sufficiently truthful about what truthfulness is." (Nietzsche)
"Jesus answered, Everyone who is of the truth hears my voice. Pilate said to him, What is truth?" (John 18:37,38)
Truth. What is it? This is a question that man has been asking for centuries. Is there an ultimate answer? Can the absolute and unshakeable be comprehended by the heart and mind of man? This is not about a particular truth but the source, the very essence itself from which all truths radiate.
"It is man that makes truth great and not truth that makes man great." (Confucius)
"It is not we who presuppose truth but it is truth that makes it at all possible for us to be able to be such that we presuppose anything at all. Truth is what makes presupposing possible." (Heidegger)
A person who is educated in a special field usually knows more about it than others but that does not ensure that his opinion is necessarily right. Truth is not decided by experts. Nor does trusting something that so many others believe make it true. That would mean truth altered every time those people changed their minds. Truth is not decided by majority vote. Man is hardly the measure of truth, for while he struggles to discover it he finds that he himself is being measured.
"Truth is never pure, and rarely simple." (Wilde)
"In the beginning was the Word I and the Word was with God., and the Word was God ... And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, full of grace and truth..." (John 1:1,14)
A paradox is a seemingly absurd but well founded statement or fact. Life is full of these apparent contradictions. This does not prove that truth is impure. It is mans understanding of truth that is impure. Light can be proven to exist and travel as waves or as particles. We are so used to experiencing its effects that, like gravity, we have forgotten that we do not know what the thing itself really IS. Paradoxical truths lie at the heart of the Scriptures. In the New Testament Jesus Christ is described as being the infinite God yet contained in the limits of the flesh of a single human being, the Creator entering within his creation.
"We are bound, however, not merely to state the true explanation but to account for the false. Such a procedure is a contribution to the establishment of truth." (Aristotle)
"Man must prove the truth, that is, the reality and power." (Karl Marx)
No truth is determined by words alone. Marx insisted on a practical outworking of his social and political ideals, as did Lenin and Mao Tse-tung. Gautama Buddha and Jesus taught that true spiritual life directly affects the realities of food, clothing, money and neighbours. Beyond this life Marx, Lenin and Mao rarely reflected. Buddha refused to speculate about God at all. Although he is supposed to have reached perfect enlightenment and achieved power over death he never objectively demonstrated it. He died and was cremated at Benares in India. Only one man's empty tomb stands in stark contrast to all other claims.
"It is the truth from your Lord, which He has bestowed upon you so that you may forewarn a nation, whom none has warned before you, and that they might be rightly guided." (Mohammed, Koran: Adoration)
"And if you say in your heart, How may we know the word which the Lord has not spoken? When a prophet speaks in the name of the Lord, if the word does not come to pass or come true, that is a word which the Lord has not spoken; the prophet has spoken it presumptuously, you need not be afraid of him." (Moses, Deuteronomy 18:21,22)
The Hebrew prophets of the Bible did not indulge in vague horoscopes. Their messages, which were often given in great detail, were expected to become fact, whether hundreds of years ahead or predictions concerning their own generation. Death awaited those whose words did not come true, a test which would silence many seers, ancient and modern.
"And, after all, what is a lie? Tis but the truth in a masquerade." (Byron)
"...though truth and falsehood be near twins, yet truth a little elder is; be busy to seek her; believe me this..." (Donne)
"I write to you, not because you do not know the truth, but because you know it and know that no lie is of the truth." (First Letter of John 2:21)
A lie is always opposed to the truth, yet fraud is a presentation of falsehood as if it were the truth, even to the extent that the deceiver may become the deceived, believing in his own inventions. But such pretence cannot escape the eye of the One Who sees all. Christ exposed the actors of his day, those who appeared behind a mask of holiness while inwardly their hearts were black. His apostles were no less scathing, warning that Satan himself will take on the likeness of an angel in his intent to mislead the whole world.
"I am certain of nothing but the holiness of the hearts affectations and the truth of the imagination, What the imagination seizes as beauty must be truth." (Keats)
"If we say we have no sin, we deceive ourselves and the truth is not in us." (First Letter of John 1:8)
When people ignore truth they do not remain as empty vessels, although they do tend to make the most noise. Instead, by exchanging the real for the unreal, they become filled with "image-ination." How often men create utopian images for themselves instead of facing facts, exchanging the real person for the ideal. All these attempts to revise history or escape to the inner realms are truth-suppression. The apostle Paul wrote that whatever you covet becomes your idol, and it will keep you in the dark. That is why God forbids the making of images, whether wood, stone or secretly graven in the mind.
"There is a difference between true and false. True speech says that which is as it is false speech says as it is not." (Socrates)
"He who says what is not goes down the path of hell; and he who says he has not done what he knows well he has done. Both in the end have to suffer, because both sinned against truth." (Gautama Buddha, Dhammapada 306)
A true story reports actual events. A testimony should corroborate with the evidence. A theory should satisfy practical tests. The designation of truth always involves the same principle. Here is a definition of truth, plain and simple: that which is said must agree with that which is done.
"Truth may not depart from human nature. If what is regarded as truth departs from human nature it may not be regarded as truth." (Confucius)
"The crowd is untruth. Therefore was Christ crucified, because, although he addressed himself to all he would have no dealings with the crowd...but would be what he is, the Truth, which relates itself to the individual." (Kierkegaard)
It is impossible to consider truth in a vacuum. We discover it in the way things are related to each other, particularly in human communication. Although man is certainly not the measure or source he is the prime agent through whom God chooses to reveal truth and have it crystallized in the written word. At the heart of the New Testament is the message that God Himself appeared in the flesh in order to reveal the greatest facts of all in the way he lived amongst us.
"We do not know a truth without its cause." (Aristotle)
"Objective uncertainty maintained in the most passionate spirit of dedication is truth, the highest truth for one existing." (Kierkegaard)
"Now they know that everything that you (Father) have given me is from you; for I have given them the words which you gave me, and they have received them and know in truth that you have sent me." (Jesus praying for his disciples, John 17:7,8)
Aristotle believed that the universe was as a precisely arranged body into which all truth neatly fitted and could be eventually discovered with knowledge. Hegel called this "the system" which Kierkegaard despised, preferring subjectivity. The Chinese call the impersonal harmony of the universe TAO. Hindus and Buddhists refer to it as OM, the sacred key word to all enlightenment. Jesus said that truth is a Person, not a thing.
"Every communist must grasp the truth, Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun." (Mao Tse-tung)
"They are not of the world, even as I am not of the world. Sanctify them in the truth; your word is truth." (Jesus praying for his disciples, John 11:16,17)
The common way of the world is to acquire and keep power by force. Yet such influential men as Socrates, Buddha, Jesus and Ghandi would have nothing to do with violent revolution. Mao, Lenin and Stalin will soon be forgotten, like many who have enforced their way by oppressing and killing those who did not agree or conform to their indoctrination. Others' words have lasted thousands of years, clearly indicating the greater influence. Jesus taught that his kingdom was not of this world; the power was from above and did not need men armed with guns to demonstrate it.
"Of the many paths of reason I am the one who leads to truth." (Krishna, Bhagavad Gita 10:32)
"They shall know that Allah is the Glorious Truth." (Mohammed, Koran: Light)
"I am the way and the truth and the life; no one comes to the Father, but by me." (Jesus, John 14:6)
Krishna is a deity of Hindu mythology, one of the many dreamlike incarnations of the sungod Vishnu. His appearance is described in the realm of fairy tale fancy, marrying a thousand milkmaids and dying like Achilles with a wound to the heel. Mohammed was, of course, a real man, the founder of Islam, who claimed to have received the final truth from heaven which he had written down in the Koran. Jesus simply stated that he himself was the truth that came down from above.
"Good men never tell the truth; to be good in that way is a sickness of the spirit." (Nietzsche)
"There is a Spirit which is mind and life and truth and vast spaces." (Chandogya Upanishad)
"And I will pray the Father, and he will give you another Counselor, to be with you for ever, even the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees him nor knows him; you know him, for he dwells with you and will be in you." (Jesus, Gospel of John 14:15-17)
There is a spirit in man which is soul, and the great spirit of nature which is its worldly character, and then there is the Spirit. Mohammed said God could not be described, and therefore is "not spirit" and "not fire." Jesus confirmed the Scriptural teaching that God IS an eternal, all-seeing, ever-present, all-powerful, Spirit. To those who would believe in him Jesus promised this Person whose presence would begin to transform their daily lives, enlightening them of the true identity of Christ and the cosmic meaning of his death.
"...it seemed good to me also having followed all things closely for some time past, to write an orderly account for you...that you may know the truth..." (Introduction to the life of Christ, Luke 1 :3,4)
"He who saw it has borne witness, his witness is true, and he knows that he tells the truth, that you also may believe." (Eyewitness record of the death of Christ, John 19:35)
"For this I was born, and for this I have come into the world, to bear witness to the truth." (Jesus on trial, John 18:37)
When faced with the resurrection of Christ his disciples were skeptical and then astonished, not by a vision but by one whom they could touch and hear, who even ate food with them. "For we did not follow cleverly fabricated myths when we made known to you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but were eyewitnesses of his majesty." (2 Peter 1:16)
"Justice is to tell the truth and return what you have borrowed." (Plato)
"Justice is far from us...we know our iniquities: transgressing, and denying the Lord, and turning away from following our God...conceiving and uttering from the heart lying words. Justice is turned back, and righteousness stands afar off; for truth has fallen in the public squares, and uprightness cannot enter. Truth is lacking, and he who departs from evil makes himself a prey." (Isaiah 59: 9-15)
Human courts cannot do justice without knowledge of the truth, but many obstacles such as insufficient evidence, false testimony, bribery and corruption keep countless crimes concealed so the world groans with oppression. The Scriptures condemn this state of affairs and point to a coming Day when all the secrets of men will be exposed and every craving for a fair trial will be satisfied.
"For my own part, I consider it as nothing less than a question of freedom or slavery...It is only in this way that we can hope to arrive at truth...I am willing to know the whole truth; to know the worst, and to provide for it...give me liberty or give me death!" (Patrick Henry)
"If you continue in my word, you are truly my disciples, and you will know the truth, and the truth will make you free...truly, truly, I say to you, every one who commits sin is a slave to sin." (Jesus, Gospel of John 8:31-34)
Generations throughout history have cried out for freedom. Most often their desire has in fact been for license, to be perverse or lawless, seeking liberation in illicit sex, drugs, religion, social revolution, or the supposed "free will" to choose anything. Man is no more free in such choice than he is able to decide to live without breathing. Jesus taught that no one could break free from the real chains, not even by personal improvement or change in society. He claimed that he alone could break the shackles of self to the service of God, an exchange of masters. True freedom is not absolute, it is like a train which fulfills its purpose and destiny. To be off the track is not liberty but disaster.
"Truth can never be told so as to be understood and not be believed." (William Blake)
"If I tell you the truth, why do you not believe me?" (Jesus, John 8:46)
Seeing is not necessarily believing. Most of the people who saw Christ raise the corpse of Lazarus to life could not and would not believe their eyes. Not only did the priests reject it, they wanted Jesus dead too. All the objective evidence in the world will not do the hardened heart any good whatsoever. The kind of faith that Jesus spoke about was more than wishful thinking and greater than empirical trust. Without this faith a scientist examining the risen Christ would still not see the truth. Jesus explained this in his story about another Lazarus, "If they do not hear Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded though one rise from the dead." (Luke 16:31)
"Though both are dear, it would be wrong to put friendship before the truth." (Aristotle)
"He who begins by loving Christianity better than Truth will proceed by loving his own sect or Church better than Christianity, and end by loving himself better than all." (Coleridge)
"A truth thats told with bad intent beats all the lies you can invent." (Blake)
The truth about man, that he is sinful to the core, lost and condemned, with only one narrow means of escape, will unavoidably cause offence, an affront that Jesus said came with the territory. His call for faith in himself as the eternal Saviour eventually led to his crucifixion, but he did not waver from the message or his destiny. Men of the world keep their options open, whatever is to their advantage, but that which shirks truth is not love at all, just self-serving deceit.
"And we know that the Son of God has come and has given us understanding, to know him who is true; and we are in him who is true, in his Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God and eternal life." (First Letter of John 5:20)
To be agnostic is to hold that man lacks the necessary knowledge to be able to find ultimate answers, thus it would be better to remain undecided rather than appear like a "bigot" who is so sure of himself. Those who encountered Christ, however, did not claim to have found the truth but rather that He had found them. "Come and see a man who told me everything about myself." (John 4:29) They could never again be agnostic, which literally means "ignorant," because they knew He was a fact. In reality, no one who hears the Word of God will be able to finally claim that they were unaware of the truth. To hear the words of Jesus Christ is to receive an immediate liability with everlasting consequences.
"Speak the truth to one another, render in your gates judgements that are true and make for peace, do not devise evil in your hearts against one another, and love no false oath...therefore love truth and peace." (Zechariah 8:16-19)
What person can possibly enjoy true peace when haunted by the possibility of past lies and hidden deeds being finally exposed? Such peace is not of this world - it must come from One Who has the power to blot out all shortcomings forever. That is the Scriptural meaning of the forgiveness of sins, because the word sin literally means "failure," a "falling short" of the divine standard of perfection. The apostle Paul called this serenity the peace that passes understanding, a cause that had this direct effect, the clear focus of the mind on the Son of God.
"For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and wickedness of men who by their wickedness suppress the truth." (Pauls Letter to the Romans 1:18)
Religious people often consider anger to be a very ungodly characteristic. Yet Hebrew prophets saw it as a genuine reaction to injustice and oppression of the poor. So did Jesus. He was angry with the religious leaders in Israel because they objected to him healing a man on a Sabbath day. He drove the merchants out of his Fathers temple in fury. One of the greatest provocations to the anger of God, he taught, was to distort or suppress His reality and lead others away from the light, especially children. "Let the little ones come to me," commanded Jesus. For people who hide Christ from their youth Jesus' warnings were dire beyond imagination. Better to have never been born.
SPACE & TIME
"History thus becomes, like truth, a separate entity, a metaphysical subject of which the real human individuals are mere representatives." (Karl Marx)
"Truth is timeless, but the moment you capture it - as when you say, I have found the truth, it is mine - it is no longer truth." (Krishnamurti)
"Truly, truly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I am." (Jesus, John 8:58)
Marx was at least right when he insisted that men should appreciate history as a down-to-earth, flesh and blood affair. That may seem obvious, but there are millions who do not know, for instance, that Mohammed, in fabricating the Koran, erased almost all of the historical background from stories borrowed from the Bible. Or that Krishna is not a real person. Hindus and Buddhists rarely consider that such outward facts are necessary for faith since, according to their philosophies, the world is an illusion and reality is in the mind. But in the Bible truth is not truth unless it affects real places, times and peoples, Pharaohs and Caesars included.
"I give thanks unto Thee, 0 my God For Thou hast made me to know Thy deep, deep truth." (Book of Hymns, Dead Sea Scrolls)
"God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth." (Jesus, John 4:24)
The early disciples actually touched the risen Christ and worshipped him. And he accepted their worship. Thomas said to him, "My Lord and my God!" Jesus said to him, "Have you believed because you have seen? Blessed are those who have not seen and yet believe." (John 20:26-29) Their excitement was not the result of worked up emotions or visions of a bleeding icon but the result of being faced with historical flesh and bone fact. That deep inner conviction in an outward reality is not the religious experience that the world's faiths offer, not even Christianity, where men trust in something that happens inside themselves. The Word says the heart of man is deceitful, not to be relied upon, and that he who trusts it is a fool. (Proverbs 28:26, Jeremiah 17:9) Truth causes people to exalt in Someone far above them, seated at the right hand of God the Father Almighty.
WORD & ACTION
"One is the outcome of knowledge, and another is the outcome of action. Thus we have heard from the ancient sages who explained this truth to us." (Isa Upanishad)
"It is right that philosophy should be called knowledge of truth. For the end of theoretical knowledge is truth while that of practical knowledge is action." (Aristotle)
"Little children., let us not love in word or speech but in deed and in truth." (First Letter of John 3:18)
Man can meditate all day without lifting a finger or debate for hours without coming to a conclusion, but truth requires the right action. He may initiate social reform or pray five times a day, but truth requires the right word. Truth is fulfilled and combined in both, right word and right action, because it is the agreement of that which is said (or written) and that which is done. It is the right concept translated into the right way, right theory and practice rolled in one. Who since the world was founded has ever demonstrated such a thing, without flaw, from birth to death, with no time at which he "changed" or became "enlightened"? Compared to him all others are in the gutter, though they may not have realized it.
Pilate said to him, "So you are a king?" Jesus answered, "You say that I am a king. For this I was born, and for this I have come into the world, to bear witness to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth hears my voice." Pilate said to him, "What is truth?"
Thomas said to him, "Lord, we do not know where you are going; how can we know the way?" Jesus said to him, "I am the way and the truth and the life; no one comes to the Father, but by me. If you had known me, you would have known my Father also; henceforth you know him and have seen him."
Aristotle: c.383-322 BC. Greek philosopher, teacher, tutor of Alexander the Great. With Plato and Socrates these three were the most influential minds of Classical Greece.
Bacon, Francis: 1561-1626. English philosopher, essayist, lawyer, lord chancellor under King James I. His taking part in interrogation by torture and accepting bribes as a judge seriously tarnished his reputation and career (Encyclopedia Britannica) as did his homosexuality and pedophilia. (http://rictornorton.co.uk/baconfra.htm) Considerable controversy now swirls around Bacon and the king he served. Bacon enthusiasts have claimed that he was one and the same person as William Shakespeare, amongst other famous identities, and also the main pen behind the King James Version of the Bible, based on Masonic symbols found in the working manuscripts (Bacon was a Rosicrucian). In fact the KJV was nine-tenths stolen from William Tyndale whose earlier meticulous translation of the New Testament from the Greek correctly omitted the word "church" entirely. The Church, which had hunted down and killed Tyndale, set about producing an "Authorized" version and re-inserting "church" over a hundred times. The English Church was infested with Masons and would certainly have made their secret marks on pages as they perverted Tyndale's work. In his high position Bacon may well have had a hand in this behind the scenes. He was the only one whose command of the language was anything like the three masters, Donne, Shakespeare and Tyndale, although he was never in their league. It is notable that the KJV, which is still worshipped by some Christians as the only legitimate English Bible, was not only deliberately altered but also "authorized" by a sodomite king, referred to as "Queen James" in his own day for his many male lovers. He not only defended his sodomy but suggested Christ was guilty of the same sin. (http://rictornorton.co.uk/jamesi.htm)
Bhagavad Gita: c.500 BC. Sanskrit, "Song of the Blessed One." A Hindu theological discourse.
Bible: Hebrew and Greek, "The Book." The Old and New Testament Scriptures.
Blake, William: 1757-1827. English poet, painter, visionary. Despising both deism and atheism he was left with little else but to prefer "imagination" over rational senses. For him the world was virtually amoral, everything being holy, thus sexual "freedom" could hold no sin in his writings. His tracts, There is No Natural Religion and All Religions are One best describe his bizarre nothing-and-everything philosophy. Unworldly, he died a pauper, but was probably not mad as some contemporaries thought.
Buddha (Gautama, Siddartha): c.563-483 BC. Alleged Indian founder of Buddhism who may or may not have existed. See The Dark Powers That Bind, Far East section.
Byron, George: 1788-1824. English poet.
Coleridge, Samuel: 1772-1834. English poet.
Confucius: c.551-479 BC. Chinese philosopher, political theorist.
Dead Sea Scrolls: c.200 BC - 68 AD. Jewish manuscripts.
Deuteronomy: c.1450 BC. Hebrew, "Second giving of the Law." Fourth book of Moses.
Dhammapada: c.200 BC. Pali, "Way of Truth." Buddhist doctrines.
Donne, John: 1572-1631. Metaphysical poet, preacher. Often quoted by "intellectuals" who are the most careful to avoid his references to Christ. Considered by some as greater than Shakespeare, Donne did not write for the popular stage but his style greatly influenced that playwright's form of prose. Donne's Ignatius And His Conclave, a visionary visit to Hell to view the inventors of religions new and old (Muhammad, the Papacy, Jesuits) was remarkable in an an age when men died easily for such statements. He saw truth as holistic, a body, not just a glimpse or isolated verse. "Is not the statement of truth more a surrounding than a seizing?" In Satire III his treatment of truth is piercing, exposing the love of religion(s) as "this blindness (which) too much light breeds," a perfect description of the modern ecumenical movement.
Heidegger, Martin: 1889-1976. German philosoper and existentialist, novice Jesuit, openly pro-Hitler. "The Führer himself and he alone is the German reality, present and future, and its law." (Encyclopedia Britannica)
Henry, Patrick: 1736-1799. American statesman, patriot, orator.
Isaiah (Isaias): c.760 BC. Hebrew, book of the prophet Isaiah.
John 1 (First Letter): c.90 AD. Greek epistle by John the brother of James, both the sons of Zebedee. Along with Peter these three formed the closest friends of Christ. As with the other nine apostles all were Israelites. Like Jesus they would have spoken the local Aramaic but the writing of commerce and correspondence in the greater Roman Empire at this time was conducted in Greek because of its universality. Compared to other tongues both Greek and Hebrew were almost "miracle" languages in their firm structure and ability to keep the same meaning over huge time spans.
John: c.97 AD. Greek account of Christ's life according to the same eyewitness and apostle.
Keats, John: 1795-1821. English poet. His dreamy, sensusous philosophy was almost entirely steeped in Greco-Roman myths.
Kierkegaard, Soren: 1813-1855. Danish theologian, philosopher, existentialist. Critic of rationalism, champion of the concepts of "free will' and "leap of faith." Great failure in relationships and critical acclaim brought "biting sarcasm and scathing contempt for women in general" and "enormous disgust for mankind." (Encyclopedia Britannica)
Koran: c.610 AD. Arabic, "The Recital." The book of the Muslim religion. See The Dark Powers That Bind, Arabia section.
Krishna: mythological Hindu God, represented in the Bhagavad Gita. See The Dark Powers That Bind, India section.
Krishnamurti: 1895-1986. Indian religious philosopher, raised to prominence by Annie Besant (1847-1933) of the Theosophical Society (founded 1875). Theos-sophia (divine wisdom) claims the existence of a brotherhood of Great Masters who have perfected themselves and are directing the spiritual evolution of humanity. Besant announced him to be such a World Teacher. The claim fizzled and he renounced the title.
Luke: c.60 AD. Greek, second-hand account of Christ according to a physician, gathered from those who had direct contact with Jesus.
Mao Tse-tung: 1893-1976. Chinese revolutionary and politician. As with Lenin or Stalin, it is not really possible to calculate how many millions died for failing to conform to this man's "cultural" revolution. He kept China, a country of immense human potential with a history of inventive achievement, in the Dark Ages for decades, a monotonous population of grey clothes and minds.
Marx, Karl: 1818-1883. German and Jewish, political theorist. Marx was an earthbound materialist, author of Das Kapital, and created a "religion" as dark as Islam which engulfed almost as many nations. His envy perfected and justified the doctrine of righteous stealing even better than Muhammad's "dividing the spoils" in the Koran, and his ideas created just as many rapacious despots in his wake. "The workers must take over the means of production" meant by force, not by patient, honest work and buying shares in the company. The workers ended up losing everything from home ownership to free choice to their greedy leaders. For instance, Stalin's employment of Marxism to expropriate Ukranian peasant lands for the his Party's collective farms caused a famine which killed almost 14 million people. Stalin temporarily managed a cover-up, using Pravda's media to achieve what Hitler lovingly called the Big Lie (Propoganda, which Hitler said he learned best from the Catholic Church) and what Boris Pasternak described as "the inhuman power of the lie." The "lies" of Marx have miserably failed (as will those of Mohammed). Only a few countries like Burma and Cuba remain totally crippled by "Big Brother" today, and their change is due soon. Even the love affair of "amateur Marxists" waned as the deception, which they knew all along, was exposed in one Communist nation after another. Canadians, for example, were supremely amateur because although they were happy to vacation at the expense of Communist poverty they did not sell their homes and stocks or give up their vote and emigrate with their children to the so-called utopias they admired, especially when the refugee boats were all coming the other way.
Mohammed (Muhammad): c.570-632 AD. Founder of Islam, writer of the Koran. Brigand, plunderer of caravans, he killed the men and sold the women and children, growing rich in these ventures and by his first marriage to a much older wealthy wife. Those who did not agree with him he slaughtered, including many Jews who exposed him as a false prophet. Borrowing from Jewish and Christian sources he created a religion which better suited himself. After the death of his first wife he acquired many consorts including under-aged girls, pedophilia which fueled much controversy. For more information and references see The Dark Powers That Bind, Arabia section or Prophet of Terror on this website's Topics page.
Nietzsche, Friedrich: 1844-1900. German philosopher, existentialist. Coined the terms, "God is dead," and "nihilism." Ended life in asylums and home care in mental darkness consistent with tertiary syphilis. (Encyclopedia Britannica)
Paul (Letter to the Romans): c.57 AD. Greek epistle written by the Hebrew apostle of Christ.
Peter 2 (Second Letter): c.60 AD. Greek epistle written by the Galilean fisherman, eyewitness and apostle of Christ. Also called Simon Peter or Cephas.
Plato, Aristocles: c.428-347 BC. Greek philosopher, political theorist.
Russell, Bertrand: 1872-1970. English philosopher, mathematician, pacifist and "skeptical atheist" who so foolishly mocked Christ's ultimate self-sacrifice as "God's suicide." He was also notorious for his multiple adulteries before the so-called "age of permissiveness."
Socrates: c.469-399 BC. Greek philosopher whose adherence to his principles cost him his life. Condemned to death, he drank hemlock, the method prescribed by the court.
Upanishads: c.800-400 BC. Sanskrit, "Sessions." Various Hindu theological writings.
Wilde, Oscar: 1854-1900. Irish poet, author of "The Decay of Lying," an essay which echoed his own pursuit of dissipation. Tried and imprisoned for sodomy. "In his semiconscious final moments, he was received into the Roman Catholic church, which he had long admired." (Encyclopedia Britannica)
Zechariah (Zecharias): c.520 BC. Hebrew, book of the prophet Zechariah.